Nathan Zipfel

Nathan Zipfel

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Angus Parishes

Parish Name Dates Parish Number County
Clova & Cortachy &Kirriemuir 1855-1947 278 Angus
Clova & Cortachy & Kirriemuir 1948-1955 299 Angus
Cortachy & Clova & Kirriemuir 1855-1947 278 Angus
Cortachy & Clova &  Kirriemuir 1948-1955 299 Angus
Coupar-Angus 1855-1892 279 Angus
Craig   280 Angus
Dun   281 Angus
Dundee   282 Angus
Dundee-Burgh 1855 282/1 Angus
Dundee-Landward 1855 282/1 Angus
Dundee-1st District 1855-1867 282/1 Angus
Dundee-2nd District 1855-1867 282/2 Angus
Dundee-3rd District 1855-1867 282/3 Angus
Dundee-St Andrews 1868-1918 282/4 Angus
Dundee-St Andrews 1919-1955 282/3 Angus
Dundee-St Clement 1868-1918 282/3 Angus
Dundee-St Clement 1919-1955 282/2 Angus
Dundee-St Mary 1868-1918 282/2 Angus
Dundee-St Peter 1868-1918 282/1 Angus
Dundee-St Mary & St Peter 1919-1951 282/1 Angus
Dundee-East 1952-1955 282/1 Angus
Dundee-West 1952-1955 282/2 Angus
Dunnichen   283 Angus
Earlston   284 Angus
Eassienevay   284 Angus
Edzell   285 Angus
Farnell   286 Angus
Fearn 1855-1900 287 Angus
Fern 1901-1955 287 Angus
Forfar-Burgh 1855 288/1 Angus
Forfar-Landward 1855 288/2 Angus
Forfar 1856-1892 288 Angus
Forfar 1893-1955 288A Angus
Fowlis-Easter 1893-1955 288B Angus
Fowlis & Lundie   306 Angus
Glammis   289 Angus
Glenisla   290 Angus
Guthrie   291 Angus
Inchbrayock   280 Angus
Inverarity   292 Angus
Invergowrie, Liff, Benvie   301 Angus
Inverkeillor 1855-1936 293 Angus
Inverkeilor & Lunan 1937-1955 293 Angus
Kenmore   360 Angus
Kettins 1855-1892 294 Angus
Kettins 1893-1955 294A Angus
Kilry 1893-1955 294B Angus
Kingoldrum   295 Angus
Kinnell & Kirkden 1855-1945 296 Angus
Kinnettles   297 Angus
Kirkden 1855-1945 298 Angus
Kirkden & Kinnell 1946-1955 298 Angus
Monifieth 1855-1911 310 Angus
Monifieth-East 1912-1922 310/1 Angus
Monifieth-West 1912-1922 310/2 Angus
Monifieth 1923-1955 310 Angus
Monikie   311 Angus
Montrose-Burgh 1855-1856 312/1 Angus
Montrose-Landward 1855-1856 312/2 Angus
Montrose 1857-1955 312 Angus
Murroes   313 Angus
Navar & Lethnott   300 Angus
Nevay & Eassie   284 Angus
Newtyle   314 Angus
Oathlaw   315 Angus
Panbridge   316 Angus
Rescobie   317 Angus
Ruthven   318 Angus
St Vigeans 1855-1895 319 Angus
St Vigeans 1896-1918 272/2 Angus
St Vigeans & Arbroath 1919-1955 272 Angus
Stracathro   320 Angus
Strathmartine 1855-1908 307/2 Angus
Strathmartine & Mains 1909-1951 307 Angus
Tannadice   321 Angus
Tealing   322 Angus
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Aberdeenshire Parishes

 

Parish Name Dates Parish Number County
Aberdeen **** 168 Aberdeen
Aberdeen-Burgh 1864-1875 168/2 Aberdeen
Aberdeen-East District 1931-1955 168/3 Aberdeen
Aberdeen-Landward 1864-1875 168/3 Aberdeen
Aberdeen-North District 1931-1955 168/1 Aberdeen
Aberdeen-South District 1931-1955 168/2 Aberdeen
Aberdour **** 169 Aberdeen
Aboyne **** 170 Aberdeen
Alford 1855-1893 171 Aberdeen
Alford 1894-1955 171A Aberdeen
Belhelvie **** 174 Aberdeen
Birse **** 175 Aberdeen
Boddam 1877-1930 232/2 Aberdeen
Bourtie **** 176 Aberdeen
Braemar & Craithie 1855-1892 183 Aberdeen
Braemar 1893-1955 183 Aberdeen
Cairnie **** 178 Aberdeen
Chapel Of Garloch **** 179 Aberdeen
Clatt **** 180 Aberdeen
Cluny **** 181 Aberdeen
Corgarff, Glenmick, Tullich, Glengairn **** 201 Aberdeen
Coull **** 182 Aberdeen
Craithie & Braemar 1855-1892 183 Aberdeen
Craithie 1893-1955 183/2 Aberdeen
Crimond **** 184 Aberdeen
Cromar & Logie-Coldstone **** 217 Aberdeen
Cruden **** 185 Aberdeen
Culsamond **** 186 Aberdeen
Daviot **** 187 Aberdeen
Dumbennan **** 202 Aberdeen
Dyce **** 190 Aberdeen
Echt **** 191 Aberdeen
Ellon **** 192 Aberdeen
Essie **** 237A Aberdeen
Fintray **** 193 Aberdeen
Forbes & Tullynessle **** 246 Aberdeen
Forgue **** 194 Aberdeen
Foveran **** 195 Aberdeen
Fraserburgh **** 196 Aberdeen
Fyvie **** 197 Aberdeen
Gartly **** 198 Aberdeen
Glass **** 199 Aberdeen
Glenbucket **** 200 Aberdeen
Glengairn, Glenmuick, Tullich, Corgarff **** 201 Aberdeen
Glenmuick, Tullich, Corgarff, Glengairn **** 201 Aberdeen
Huntly **** 202 Aberdeen
Insch **** 203 Aberdeen
Inverallochy 1878-1955 235/2 Aberdeen
Invernochtie **** 240 Aberdeen
Inverurie-Burgh 1855 204/1 Aberdeen
Inverurie-Landward 1855 204/2 Aberdeen
Inverurie 1856-1955 204 Aberdeen
Kearn & Auchindoir **** 172 Aberdeen
Keig **** 205 Aberdeen
Keithhall & Kinkell **** 206 Aberdeen
Kemnay **** 207 Aberdeen
Kildonan **** 52 Sutherland
Kincardine O'Neil **** 209 Aberdeen
Kinellar **** 211 Aberdeen
King Edward 1855-1871 210 Aberdeen
King Edward 1872-1879 210/1 Aberdeen
King Edward 1880-1955 21OA/1 Aberdeen
Kininmonth 1880-1955 210B Aberdeen
Kinkell & Keithhall **** 206 Aberdeen
Kinnellar **** 211 Aberdeen
Kinnethmont **** 212 Aberdeen
Kintore-Burgh 1855 213/1 Aberdeen
Kintore-Landward 1855 213/2 Aberdeen
Kintore 1856-1955 213 Aberdeen
Leslie **** 215 Aberdeen
Logie-Buchan **** 216 Aberdeen
Logie-Coldstone & Cromar **** 217 Aberdeen
Longside **** 218 Aberdeen
Lonmay **** 219 Aberdeen
Lumphanan **** 220 Aberdeen
Methlic **** 221 Aberdeen
New Deer **** 225 Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen 1886-1913 168/4 Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen 1914-1930 168/5 Aberdeen
Rhynie 1855-1859 237 Aberdeen
Rhynie 1860-1955 237A Aberdeen
Skene **** 238 Aberdeen
Slains **** 239 Aberdeen
St Fergus 1890-1955 237C Aberdeen
St Machar 1898-1930 168/2 Aberdeen
St Nicholas 1856-1930 168/1 Aberdeen
Strichen **** 241 Aberdeen
Tyarland & Migvy **** 242 Aberdeen
Tarves **** 243 Aberdeen
Tough **** 244 Aberdeen
Townie **** 245 Aberdeen
Tullich, Glenmuick, Glengairn, Corqarff **** 201 Aberdeen
Tullynessle & Forbes **** 246 Aberdeen
Turriff **** 247 Aberdeen
Tyrie **** 248 Aberdeen
Udny 1855-1869 249 Aberdeen
Udny 1870-1955 249A Aberdeen
Ardallie 1894-1955 171B Aberdeen
Auchindoir & Kearn **** 172 Aberdeen
Drumblade **** 188 Aberdeen
Drumoak **** 189 Aberdeen
Kildrummy **** 208 Aberdeen
Strathdon **** 240 Aberdeen
Rubislaw 1914-1930 168/3 Aberdeen
Savoch 1860-1955 237B Aberdeen
       
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Bridewell Jail Prisoners

BRIDEWELL JAIL PRISONERS

Here is the full list of the prisoners in Jedburgh Prison in the 1851 Census:

Jedburgh Parish, Book 9, Page 2
Jedburgh Prison

David Blyth; Prisoner; Unmarried; 12; Hawker; Roxburgh, Kelso
Andrew Cairns; Prisoner; Unmarried; 21; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh,
Nisbet
John McKeady; Prisoner; Unmarried; 30; Mason; Kirkcudbright, Castle Douglas
William McDonald; Prisoner; Married; 36; Basket-Maker; Midlothian, Edinburgh
James Buchanan; Prisoner; Unmarried; 19; Railway Laborer; Donegal, Donegal
William Wallace; Prisoner; Married; 35; Fishmonger; Down, Roughisland
William McFarlane; Prisoner; Unmarried; 25; Stocking-Weaver; Roxburgh,
Hawick
Benjamin Lamb; Prisoner; Unmarried; 21; Stocking-Weaver; Roxburgh, Hawick
Thomas Costello; Prisoner; Unmarried; 23; Railway Labour; Ireland,
Coshcallighan
Andrew Wilson; Prisoner; Unmarried; 18; Slater; Midlothian, Dalkeith
Robt. Elder; Prisoner; Unmarried; 22; Tailor; Roxburgh, Hawick
Peter Blyth; Prisoner; Unmarried; 18; Hawker; Roxburgh, Kelso
Matthew Blyth; Prisoner; Married; 38; Basket-Maker; Roxburgh, Yetholm
William Crocket; Prisoner; Unmarried; 35; Cotton-Weaver; Lanark, Biggar
John Ferguson; Prisoner; Married; 55; Stocking-Weaver; Roxburgh, Hawick
Robt. Miles; Prisoner; Unmarried; 18; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh, Kelso
William Bailie; Prisoner; Unmarried; 19; Basket Maker; Roxburgh, Kelso
Elliot Aling; Prisoner; Unmarried; 25; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh, Kelso
James Rutherford; Prisoner; Unmarried; 21; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh,
Kelso
Simon Hossack; Prisoner; Unmarried; 18; Baker; Roxburgh, Kelso
Thomas Hogg; Prisoner; Widower; 49; Fisherman; Roxburgh, Roxburgh
William Scoon; Prisoner; Unmarried; 33; Cattle-Dealer; Roxburgh, St.
Boswells
Michael McAndrew; Prisoner; Married; 21; Shoemaker; Mayo, Kilcommon
George Scot; Prisoner; Unmarried; 38; House Servant; Roxburgh, Ancrum
George Scot; Prisoner; Unmarried; 28; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh, Kelso
John Taylor; Prisoner; Married; 52; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh, Yetholm
William Taylor; Prisoner; Unmarried; 22; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh,
Yetholm
John Bolton; Prisoner; Unmarried; 25; Agricultural Laborer; Roxburgh,
Yetholm
Helen Kirk; Prisoner; Married; 47; Housekeeper; Dumfries, Holywood
Elizabeth Ritchie; Prisoner; Unmarried; 12; Nill; Roxburgh, Kelso
Margaret Duncan; Prisoner; Unmarried; 22; Hawker; Fife, Cupar
Jane Kyle; Prisoner; Unmarried; 26; House-Servant; Roxburgh, Kelso
Janet Mundle; Prisoner; Unmarried; 21; House-Servant; Dumfries, Dumfries
Catherine Elliot; Prisoner; Married; 47; Hawker; Midlothian, Edinburgh
Agness Wilson; Prisoner; Married; 29; Hawker; Midlothian, Edinburgh

Hope this helps,

Graham Maxwell

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Graveyards in Berwickshire

Cemetery index was kindly donated by Anne Hupert This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Now we need to post cemetery transcriptions for every cemetery. If you own copyright free transcriptions and want to share with other researchers, please contact us. Thanks all for contributing to BerwickshireGenWeb

 

Graveyard Location
Abbey St Bathans Parish Church
Ayton Parish Church
Bunkle (or Benkyl) and Preson, Combined Parish Bunkle Parish Church and old Preston Churchyard on road from Duns to Preston Village
Channelkirk Parish Church
Cockbuhnspath Parish Church
Cockbuhnspath (St Helens on the Lea Ruins of Chapel on Dunglass
Coldingham Parish Church
Coldstream (Lennel) One mile out of Coldstream on road to Ladykirk
Cranshaws Parish Church
Cranshaws - Old In fields south of Cranshaws Castle
Duns Parish Church
Duns (Vault at Nisbet Castle  2 miles to south on road to Coldstream
Earlston Parish Church
Eccles Parish Church
Eccles (Birgham) Birgham Village
Eccles (Earnslaw Farm) In wood at farmhouse
Edrom Parish Church
Eyemouth In town - west of Home Arms Hotel
Fogo Parish Church
Foulden Parish Church
Gordon Parish Church
Greenlaw Parish Church
Hume (Combined Parish of Snitchell and Hume) On old road north of Hume Byers Farm
Hutton Parish Church
Hutton (Fishwick) In field on Mr. Stobe's farm at Fishwick
Ladykirk Parish Church
Ladykirk (Horndean) In field between Horndean village and River Tweed
Langton In wood near Brownlie's Saw Mill at ruins of Langton House
Longton (Gavinton) At present Parish Church of Langton at Gavinton Village
Lauder Parish Church
Legerwood Parish Church
Longformacus Parish Church
Longformacus (Ellemford) Site of graveyard, with no stones left, is behind a gamekeeper's cottage of Cranshaws/Duns road
Mertoun In fields at Magdalen Hall Farm, near Parish Church
Mertoun  (Dryburgh) Dryburgh Abbey
Mordington On main road, south of present Parish Church
Mordington (old) Among trees in field south of Mordington House
Mordington (Lamberton) At Lamberton Farm, off Ayton to Berwick road (A. L.)
Nenthorn In grounds of Nenthorn House
Nenthorn (Newton Don) In grounds of Newson Don House
Polwarth Parish Church
Swinton Parish Church
Swinton (Simprim) At corner of Swinton/Coldstream road, about 1 1/2 miles south of Swinton Village
Westruther At ruins of old Parish Church in village
Whitsome In fields est of Parish Church
Whitsome (Hilton) At Hilton Farm
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Web Links

 

Created by SJL Creations, see more on http://www.sjlcreations.be

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Policy and Guidelines

There are several county sites that are available for adoption. If you would like to join this project, please contact the Country Coordinator and include the name of the country you are interested in adopting.

The ScotlandGenWeb Project maintains very high standards in page creation, site management, and overall quality of presentation for all associated project pages. The ScotlandGenWeb Project encourages freedom of expression, national cultural uniqueness and individual creativity by project hosts in the actual design of their pages. Certain elements are required, however, to help maintain the cohesiveness of the project.

  1. The WorldGenWeb Logo and Name must be present on the ScotlandGenWeb homepage and on the county websites as well as all special projects.  Logos may be found at http://www.worldgenweb.org/images/index.html  
  2. All ScotlandGenWeb Project sites share the same alpha-neumonic name and all projects must conform to this standard.  The project name is The ScotlandGenWeb Project. County pages follow this same example: Aberdeenshireshire, ScotlandGenWeb Project
  3. County websites must contain a link to the ScotlandGenWeb website (http://www.scotlandgenweb.org/) with one of the following  ScotlandGenWeb Logo buttons.

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  4. Non-Commercial Status: The ScotlandGenWeb Project is a non-commercial entity. The ScotlandGenWeb Project is dedicated to the concept of free exchange of public-domain records via the internet.  As such we do not charge for the resources available through our pages.  We may link to commercial websites however that does not imply that we endorse their services.
  5. Copyright: The ScotlandGenWeb Project encourages the collection and publication of non-copyrighted materials online by hosts. The ScotlandGenWeb Project will not pay royalties to any organization or institution. Therefore, we stipulate that all materials placed online at any project website be free from copyright infringement.
  6. The ScotlandGenWeb Project feels strongly that GENUKI has some of the best material online to assist researchers in Scotland. We are working collaboratively with them to provide additional services to researchers that are not currently available through their project setup.   It is not the aim of the ScotlandGenWeb to replicate the resources available from GENUKI.  The ScotlandGenWeb Project functions more as a query resource and family association project rather than as a national resource center.  Volunteers for any country or county website within the iukgenweb should seek to provide those additional services that GENUKI does not provide.   Examples of that include:
    • Query Pages
    • Mailing Lists
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    • Family Association Website Links

    County hosts are strongly encouraged to contact and establish a relationship with the corresponding GENUKI county host.  The ScotlandGenWeb Project has worked hard at establishing a strong collaborative relationship with GENUKI and will not permit an individual country/county host jeopardize that relationship.  The ScotlandGenWeb and the County hosts will maintain a promenade link to the corresponding GENUKI website.

  7. The ScotlandGenWeb Project endeavors to maintain that all materials collected through associated project websites will not be distributed commercially. Country coordinators and project volunteers work on the honor system and we "assume" that materials placed online are free from any copyright infringement and that they will not be sold or republished in any form.
  8. Individual's who submit data to any website are free to include the word "private" in place of any records or dates. This does dilute the value of the record submitted but we wholeheartedly support the privacy rights of the individual.
  9. Each coordinator will maintain a method for researchers to post queries. The coordinator may choose to administrate a query page/bulletin board system or they may choose to provide a link to an existing message board related to their region.
    The coordinator is free to choose a system/method which works best for their project web site.
  10. County sites will maintain a link to the WorldGenWeb Project Archives.
  11. To fulfill the mission of the WorldGenWeb Project of providing quality genealogical data and information it is imperative that each WorldGenWeb Project website be kept current. At a minimum each project shall be updated once every 12 months. This update should include a check for any broken links, a change to the copyright date and a check to ensure that contact information is current. Project websites that have not been updated for a period greater than 12 months may be declared abandoned and the coordinator may be removed from the WorldGenWeb Project in accordance with Section VII and Section VIII of WorldGenWeb policies.

These policies are an adaptation of the policies of the WorldGenWeb Project located a thttp://www.worldgenweb.org/index.php/policies-and-procedures.  These policies are the requirements for a ScotlandGenWeb Project, each coordinator is responsible for reviewing the above websites to ensure they are in compliance with the WorldGenWeb and iukgenweb policies.  These Guidelines and Policies were last updated on 12 June 2017.

Disclaimer: The ScotlandGenWeb Project does not guarantee the authenticity or source of any collected material place online at project websites and is to be held free and indomitable from any and all liabilities based on such materials. The iukgenweb will remove any materials found to be in violation of all U.S. Copy Right Laws and statutes.

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Places, West Lothian

Linlithgow Palace: Linlithgow , one of Scotland's oldest towns, was granted its charter in 1389 by King Robert II, grandson of Robert the Bruce. Home of the Stewart dynasty who ruled Scotland until the 17th century. Mary Queen of Scots, was born in the Palace of Linlithgow in 1542.

Armadale

Bathgate

Blackburn

Broxburn

East Calder

Fauldhouse

Harthill

Linlithgow

Livingston

Mid Calder

Torphichen

Uphall

West Calder

Whitburn

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Reference Information, Ross & Cromarty

The following information can be obtained through the Edinburgh Central Library.  This information is provided courtesy of Familia.

Birth, Death and Marriage

  • Registrar General's Indexes from 1837 (microform)
  • Registrar General for Scotland's Computerised Index from 1855 

Census Returns

  • 1841-1891 for Ross and Cromarty

County Directories

  • Pigot, J. & Co. New Commercial Directory of Scotland for 1825-6. (SC)
  • Slater, I. Royal national commercial directory and topography of Scotland, 1852, 1860, 1867, 1889, 1878, 1915, 1893. (SC)
  • County Directory of Scotland: 1862, 1868, 1875, 1878, 1882-89, 1893-96, 1912. (SC)
  • MacDonald's Scottish Directory: 1915, 1920-21, 1923-24, 1931-1974 (some gaps).

Parish Registers

  • Various Ross and Cromarty
  • Index to Old Parish Registers for Scotland

Periodicals

  • The Scottish Genealogist. 1954 to date
  • Scottish Local History. 1983 to date

Other Materials

  • Scottish Dept: c.1300 individual family histories
  • Scottish law list and Scottish Law Directory (1863-1963 and 1917 to present)
  • Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae (list of Church of Scotland ministers)

Unpublished Indexes

  • Index to parishes covered by surveys of monumental inscriptions in Scotland outside of Edinburgh
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Church of St Colm, Kilmacolm

Church of St Colm, Kilmacolm

Renfrewshire, Scotland

  The name of the village, Kilmacolm, means "the Church of beloved Columcille, or Columba" from the fact that a church was established there around the sixth century by one of St Columba's monks from the island of Iona. Christianity took root in the area and there are traces of several of the celtic saints who lived or preached in the country around, the most notable of these being St Fillan, after whom the neighboring district of Kilellan is named. After the arrival of the Cluniac monks to found the great monastery of Paisley in the twelfth century the church of Kilmacolm, as it had become known, passed into the care of the Abbey and was served by the monks through chaplains until the Protestant Reformation, in the sixteenth century, displaced the monks and proscribed the old religion. In the nineteenth century Catholicism slowly returned to Renfrewshire as Scots from the highlands and islands and Irish immigrants arrived looking for work in the prosperous lowlands of Scotland and they were served by priests based in Paisley, Greenock and, closest to,our village, by the new church of St Fillan in nearby Houston. In 1945 a small, run-down bothy near the centre of the village was purchased and, with the help of volunteers from the neighboring town of Port Glasgow, it was transformed into a building for the use of the growing Catholic population. The ground floor became a small hall for social purposes and on 9th June of that year, the Feast Day of St Columba, the upper floor was dedicated as a church under his patronage and in his local name of St Colm. This "Upper Room", as it came to be known, served the people well, but as the population increased it became to small, and so plans were laid for a new building on the same site. The new church of St Colm was formally opened and dedicated by Bishop John Mone of Paisley on 22nd November 1992, and is a building of which the congregation is justly proud. But the Church cannot stand still! Kilmacolm had been part of a joint parish with the village of Bishopton since 1946, but, like all youngsters, the time had now come to leave the nest! The congregation had petitioned the diocese long and weary for their autonomy and at last their wish was granted. On Christmas Day 1995 the quasi-Parish of St Colm, Kilmacolm, was created within the Diocese of paisley and the Rev. Willie McDade was appointed the first parish priest. God has brought us this far.Only he knows what the future hold for us!

A
HISTORY
OF THE
COUNTY OF RENFREW
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES.

BY

WILLIAM M METCALFE, D.D.

With a Map of the County.

PAISLEY: ALEXANDER GARDNER,

publisher by appointment to the late Queen Victoria,

1905.

Introduction

THE County of Renfrew lies between 55° 40' and 55° 58' north latitude, and between 4° 14' and 4° 54' west longitude. It is bounded on the east and north-east by the county of Lanark, on the south by. Ayrshire, and on the west and north by the Clyde, with the exception of a small portion, opposite to the town of Renfrew, on the north bank of the Clyde, adjacent to the county of Dumbarton. The greatest length of the county, which is from south-east to north-west, is 31 1/2 miles, and its greatest breadth, which is from north to south, is 13 1/4 miles. Its area is 254 square miles, or 162,427 acres, 1,294 of which are on the north of the Clyde. In 1901 the population of the county was 293,451.

The coast line of the shire, which on the west and north-west is bold and rocky, but elsewhere low and flat, extends from the Kelly Burn, near Wemyss Bay, to the lands of the House of Elderslie, in the parish of Renfrew, and is about 30 miles long. The chief promontories are Wemyss Point, Ardgowan Point, Cloch Point, Kempoch Point, Fort Matilda Point, and Garvel Point. The chief indentations are Wemyss Bay, Inverkip Bay, Lunderton Bay, Gourock Bay, the Bay of St. Lawrence, and Newark Bay.

There are two islands in the shire: Newshot Island in the Clyde, about 50 acres in extent, and Colin's Isle in the Cart. Formerly the Clyde ran close to the Burgh of Renfrew and cut through the grounds of Elderslie House, and thus formed a third island, known as the King's Inch.

The general surface of the county is considerably elevated above sea level, but there are. no great irregularities. There are extensive moors, the greatest of which is Duchal Moor, in the parish of Kilmacolm. The ground rises to the greatest height in the east and west. The principal hills are Blackwood Hill (1,200 feet) and Myers Hill (1,100 feet), in the parish of Eaglesham; the Hill of Staik (1,711 feet), East Girt Hill (1,673 feet), Misty Law (1,663 feet), and Queenside Hill (1,540 feet), in the parish of Loch-winnoch; Creuch Hill (1,446 feet), Knockminwood Hill (1,253 feet), Hydal Hill (1,244 feet), and The Laird's Seat (1,054 feet), in the parish of Kilmacolm. In the south of the county are the Fereneze Hills and Neilston Pad. Lesser heights occur throughout the county. Parts of the shire are well wooded, and here and there are scenes of great beauty. To the north of Paisley is a beautiful piece of level country, about six miles long by three broad, known as the Laighlands.

Besides the Clyde, the principal rivers are the Cart and its parent streams, the White Cart, the Black Cart, and the Gryfe Water. The White Cart rises near the point where the three counties of Lanark, Renfrew, and Ayr meet. It flows through the parish of Eaglesham, along the boundary between Renfrewshire and Lanarkshire, through the parish of Cathcart, past Pollokshaws, Crookston Castle, and through Paisley to Inchinnan Bridge, where it is joined by the united waters of the Black Cart and the Gryfe. It receives the Threepland, Ardoch, and Holehill Burns, the Earn Water, the Auldhouse Burn, the Levern Water near Crookston Castle, and the Espedair Burn at Paisley. The Black Cart issues from the north end of Castle Semple Loch, and flows past Johnstone and Linwood to Walkinshaw, where it is joined by the Gryfe. The Gryfe rises among the high lands south of Greenock, and after flowing past Bridge of Weir and Crosslee, joins the Black Cart at Walkinshaw. Their united waters join the White Cart at Inchinnan Bridge and form the Cart, which flows into the Clyde. The Kipp and the Daff are small streams in the parish of Inverkip. The Calder rises in Kilmacolm Moss, and flows eastward into Castle Semple Loch.

The principal lakes are the loch just named in the parish of Lochwinnoch, Loch Long and Loch Libo in the parish of Neilston, Brother Loch and Black Loch in the parish of Mearns, and Binend Loch and Lochgoin in the parish of Eaglesham.

Rocks of volcanic origin abound, especially in the higher parts of the shire, and have been moulded into their present forms by glacial action. Among the uplands of Misty Law, in the heart of the Renfrewshire part of the Clyde volcanic plateau, is a remarkable group of vents with a connected mass of tuff and agglomerate occupying a space of about four miles in length and two and a half miles in breadth. Strata of tuff and lava occur also in other places. Near Paisley is a platform of glacial clay with Arctic shells. The markings on the rocks show that the motion of the ice was towards the south. The southeastern portion of the county belongs to the great western coal-field of Scotland. At Quarrelton the coal bed was found to be of extraordinary thickness. Coal has been wrought at Hurlet for over three hundred years.

The sulphates found in abundance in the mines there have given rise to important chemical industries. Coal is found as far west as Inkerman and Bishopton, and is usually accompanied by iron either in beds or in balls. Sandstone and limestone are found in several parts of the county. In the west, from Port-Glasgow south to Ayrshire, red sandstone prevails, intermingled with porphyry and greenstone.

On the moorlands the soil is thin, poor, and cold, though here and there excellent pasture is found. The arable land is chiefly in the north and north-east, in the middle of the county and along the banks of the Black Cart, where the soil is a rich loam varying in depth from a few inches to several feet. In the Laighlands, to the north of Paisley, the soil is generally a deep, rich loam of a dark brown colour, resembling carse clay.
The climate, owing to the western position of the county, is greatly influenced by the breezes from the Atlantic Ocean. West and south-west winds prevail during the greater part of the year. Hence the climate in the west is both mild and moist; but less moist in the eastern parts. The yearly rainfall at Greenock averages about 6096 inches, and at Paisley about 37.90 inches.

The county was at one time well wooded, as is indicated by the names Eastwood, Stanely Wood, Fereneze Forest, and Paisley Forest. Ancient records show that the woods abounded in game, and the rivers in fish. The White Cart was at one time famous for its pearls.

Before the Reformation the county consisted of fourteen parishes, and of parts of three others. In 1589 the parish of Greenock was disjoined from the parish of Inverkip, and Port-Glasgow from Kilmacolm in 1694. Other parishes have been formed out of the parish of Greenock and the Abbey (Paisley) parish. The division of the county into two wards-the Upper and Lower Wards-was not officially recognised till the year 1815. For Parliamentary and other purposes the shire is now divided into two districts-the Eastern and the Western.